Prediction of Internet Addiction Based on Academic Procrastination, Loneliness, and Time Management of Students at Qom University

Document Type : Original Article


1 Master's degree, Educational Psychology, University of Qom, Qom, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, University of Qom, Qom, Iran


Objectives: This research aimed to predict Internet addiction based on academic procrastination, loneliness, and time management of students at Qom University in the academic year 2020-2021.
Methods: The research method was a descriptive and correlational survey, and the statistical population consisted of all the students of Qom University in the academic year 2020-2021, which were 10171. According to the table of Morgan and Karjesi, the sample size was 373 people who were selected by the available sampling method. The research tools include four internet addiction questionnaires by Young's Internet Addiction (1988) with 20 questions, Solomon and Rothblum Academic Procrastination questionnaire (1989) with 27 questions and three subscales, De To Matsu et al.'s Feeling Lonely (2004) with 15 questions and three subscales, and time management. Truman and Hartley Time Management (1996) with 14 questions and 2 subscales. Statistical analysis of data was done with the help of the Pearson correlation test and regression analysis with the help of SPSS version 24 software.
Results: The results of this research showed that the variables of academic procrastination, loneliness, and time management were able to predict Internet addiction. The academic procrastination variable had a direct and significant relationship with Internet addiction (p<0.01). Also, the feeling of loneliness variable has a direct and significant relationship with Internet addiction (p<0.01). On the other hand, the time management variable had an inverse and significant relationship with Internet addiction (p<0.01). The results of the regression analysis showed that time management has more predictive power than the other two variables for Internet addiction. The beta coefficient for the academic procrastination variable was 0.148, for the feeling of loneliness variable was -0.231, and the time management variable was -0.287. Also, among the components of academic procrastination, preparation for the exam, among the components of loneliness, feelings of family loneliness, and the components of time management, confidence in long-term planning, had more predictive power for Internet addiction.
Conclusions: The findings of this research determined that with the increase in academic procrastination in students, the addiction to the Internet increases. Also, as students feel lonelier, their use of the Internet increases. In the meantime, the greater the ability of time management in students, the less their addiction to the Internet will be. The obtained results show the importance of paying attention to the variables of work-academic procrastination, loneliness and time management in relation to the variable of Internet addiction.


Main Subjects

Alavinejad, R., Koshki, Sh., Baghdasarians, A. & Golshani, F. (2018). The structural model of Internet addiction based on maladjusted personality traits and emotional inadequacy with the mediation of students' feelings of loneliness. Psychological Methods and Models, 10(37):
117-138. [in persian]
Birami, M., Movahedi, Y. & Movahedi, M. (2013). The relationship between perceived social support and feeling of social-emotional loneliness with Internet addiction in the student community. Social cognition, 3(6): 109-122. [in persian]
Bordodeh, S., Rah Nejat, A.M., Rabiei, M. & Kiani Moghadam, A.S. (2016). Determining the relationship between feelings of loneliness with Internet addiction and marital conflict in couples. Nurse and Doctor in War, 5(16): 31-37. [in persian]
Davis, R.A. (2001). A congnitive – behavioral model of pathological internet use. Computers in Human Behavior, 17: 95-187.
Diaz, I.A., Rodriguez, J.M., Gonzalez, A.G. & Montoya, M.S.R. (2020). Mexican and Spanish university students’ Internet addiction and academic procrastination: Correlation and potential factors. Journal. Pone, 15(5): 1-18. DOI: pone.0233655
Esen, B., Aktas, E. & Tuncer, I. (2013). An analysis of university students internet use in relation to loneliness and social self-efficacy. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84: 1504-1508. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.780
Farid Ahmadinia, B. (2016). Investigating the effect of teaching time management strategies on reducing internet addiction and increasing social adaptation of high school students. Master's thesis. Tabriz University. [in persian]
Haji Mohammadi, F. & Rezakhani, S. (2018). Determining the contribution of anger and procrastination in predicting internet addiction of female students. Social Research, 12(43): 142-162. [in persian]
Hamidi, F., Mahdia Najafabadi, M. & Namazeyan Najafabadi, Th. (2014). Investigating the relationship between Internet addiction and academic procrastination in high school students. Educational and Learning Technology Quarterly, 1(3): 89-106. [in persian]
Hasmujaj, E. (2016). Internet Addiction and Loneliness Among Students of University of Shkodra. European Scientific Journal edition, 12(2): 1857-7881.  
Jokar, B. & Salimi, A. (2010). Psychometric properties of Qorm short social and emotional loneliness scale for adults. Behavioral Sciences, 5(4), 311-317. [in persian]
Kakavand, A.R., Nik Akhtar, Sh. & Sardaripour, M. (2016). Prediction of students' internet addiction based on perceived social support. Loneliness and social anxiety. Journal of School Psychology, 6(1): 83-100. DOI: 10.22098/jsp.2017.539. [in persian]
Kazemi Sirkane, A., Hashemi, T. & Mashinchi Abbasi, N. (2016). Loneliness, social self-efficacy and Internet addiction. Contemporary Psychology, 12: 1368-1364. [in persian]
Kiamarthi, A. & Aryapuran, S. (2014). Prevalence of Internet addiction and its relationship with and aggression in students. Journal of School Psychology, 4(3): 67-85. [in persian]
Kim, J., Hong, H., Lee, J. & Hyun, M.H. (2017). Effects of time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(2): 229-236.             
DOI: 10.1556/2006.6.2017.017.
Klingsieck, K.B. (2013). Procrastination. European Psychologist.
Kubey, R.W., Lavin, M.J. & Barrows, J.R. (2001). Internet use and collegiate academic performance decrements: Early findings. Journal of communication, 51(2): 366-382.
Modabar Qeshlaq, S. (2016). The relationship between self-regulation and time management with academic procrastination among secondary school students of Benab. Master's thesis. Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan. [in persian]
Moradi, N., Haji Yakhchali, A.R. & Morovvati, Z.A. (2014). Causal relationship between time management and perceived social support with psychological well-being and academic performance with the mediation of academic stress and academic self-efficacy in students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Journal of psychological achievements (educational sciences and psychology), 22(1): 226- 209. [in persian]
Mullen, A. (2014). The Role of Psychological Flexibility in Procrastination. The university of Louisiana at Lafayette.
Oksuz, E., Guvenc, G. & Mamcu, S. (2017). Relationship Between Problematic Internet Use and Time Management Among Nursing Students. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.  
DOI: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000391.
Ozdemir, Y., kuzucu, Y. & Serife, A.K. (2014). Depression, loneliness and Internet addiction: How important is low self-control? Computers in Human Behavior, 34: 284–290.     
Park, C.J., Kim, D.H. & Hyun, J.S. (2011). Impact of time perspective on the Internet and mobile phone addiction of primary and middle school students. Journal of Korean Information Education, 15(3): 399–411.
Rajab Zadeh, Z., Najar Asl, N., Shahbazi Moghadam, G.R. & Pour Akbaran, A. (2015). The relationship between internet addiction and feelings of loneliness and general health in female students. Journal of Principles of Mental Health, 18: 546-542. [in persian]
Rezaei Kalantari, M. & Iftikhari Konzarki, F. (2018). The relationship between feelings of loneliness and mental health with internet addiction among male students of the first grade of high school in Sari 1397-1396. Information and Communication Technology in Educational Sciences, 9(4): 5-23. [in Persian]
Rezaei, S., Grakoi, A. & Gurban Pour Lfmjani, A. (2019). The structural relationship between cell phone trauma and adolescents' feelings of loneliness with the mediation of time management. Communication Research Quarterly, 27(103): 181-197.            
DOI: 10.22082/CR.2020.122164.2011 [in persian]
Sawari, K. (2008). Investigating the effect of training time management skills and behavior management on reducing procrastination academic work. PhD. thesis. Allameh Tabatabai University.
Shahbazian Khoniq, A., Mesrabadi, J. & Farid, A. (2017). The role of academic procrastination and loneliness in students' academic burnout. Psychology Development, 7(31): 183-198.           
DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.erj.3.33.13. [in persian]
Shahbazian Khoniq, A., Samimi, Z. & Farid, A. (2015). The relationship between Internet addiction and religious orientation with students' academic procrastination according to gender. Educational Research, 33: 15-30. [in persian]
Shahbazian, A. & Bahadori Khosrow Shahi, J. (2016). Distinguishing students with academic procrastination and normal students based on Internet addiction. Daneshvar Medical, 25(131): 1-10. [in persian]
Shi, X., Wang. J. & Zou, H. (2017). Family functioning and internet addiction among Chinese Adolescents: The mediating roles of self-esteem and loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 76 :201-210. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.07.028.
Siang Ang, C., Nee Chan, N. & Syin Lee, C. (2017). Shyness, Loneliness Avoidance, and Internet Addiction: What are the Relationships? The Journal of Psychology, 152(1): 25–35.
Soleimani, M., Saadipour, A. & Asadzadeh, H. (2015). The relationship between the use of mobile phone virtual social networks with academic procrastination, feelings of loneliness and mental health of students. Information and Communication Technology Quarterly in Educational Sciences, 6(4): 127-144. [in persian]
Taghizadeh Dezfouli, A. (2018). The relationship between time management, aggression and intellectual- practical obsession with Internet addiction in the third-grade students of the second secondary school in Ahvaz city. In: The 5th National Conference on Recent Innovations in Psychology, Applications and Empowerment Centered on Psychotherapy, Islamic Azad University, Malayer Branch. [in persian]
Tras, Z. & Gokcen, G. (2020). Academic Procrastination and Social Anxiety as Predictive Variables Internet Addiction of Adolescents: International Education Studies, 13(9).        
Trueman, M. & Hartely, J. (1996). A comparison between the time management skills & academic performance of mature & traditional entry university students. Journal of Higher Education, 32)2): 199-215.
Widyanto, L., Mc Murran, M. (2004). The psychometric properties of the internet addiction test. Cyber Psychology Behavior, 7(4): 443-50.
Yao, M.Z. & Zhong, Z.J. (2014). Loneliness, social contacts and Internet addiction: A cross-lagged panel study. Computers in Human Behavior, 30: 164–170.     
Young, K.S. (1996). Internet addiction: The emergen ce of a new clinical disorder. In: Paper presented at the104th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.Toronto, canada.
Zare, M. (2016). Prediction of Internet addiction according to feeling of social and emotional loneliness and introversion. Master's Thesis. Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch. [in persian]