Comparative Study of University, Industry, and Government Cooperation Model in Artificial Intelligence Scientific Research of Iran, China, and America

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD. in Management, University of Naples Federico, Head of Artificial Intelligence Monitor, Part AI Research Center, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD. in Management of Technology, University of Tehran; Researcher of Artificial Intelligence Monitor, Part AI Research Center, Tehran, Iran

3 PhD. in Information Technology Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University; Researcher of Artificial Intelligence Monitor, Part AI Research Center, Tehran, Iran


Objectives: By identifying the scientific researches of artificial intelligence carried out by universities, industry and the government, this paper seeks to outline the research situation of Iran in the field of this technology in comparison with China and the United States as the two leading countries in artificial intelligence. Based on this perception, the main goal of the current research is to extract the interactive model of university, industry, and government as the main actors in the scientific research collaboration of artificial intelligence in the three studied countries.
Methods: This research was conducted based on the scientometric method and the use of the Scopus database in the time domain of the last two decades. Countries were ranked based on the number of documents and citations to the top 1000. Then the documents were separated based on organizational affiliations into academic, industrial, government, and international groups. On this basis, the co-authoring network of Iran's documents was drawn based on organizational collaboration. Through mutual information analysis, the quality of cooperation in Iran was compared with the other two countries. For this purpose, a meaningful examination of the arrangement of categories was done through Shannon's entropy calculations.
Results: With a small difference, China and America had the most documents and Iran was in the 30th position. In the citation, America, with a significant difference, was first, China was second, and Iran was 17th. By normalizing the number of studies in terms of population and GDP, the United States was placed in a much higher position than China, and the distance between Iran and China in the normalized results was also much smaller. In the uncertainty and synergy of interactions, the same order was maintained. Among the players in Iran, Tehran University, followed by the Amirkabir University of Technology the and Sharif University of Technology, have had the most scientific productions. University, industry, and government data in Iran were experimentally manipulated. The highest output based on the least input change was achieved through increased industry research.
Conclusions: The most important difference in the cooperation model of Iranian actors with the other two countries is the level of industry participation. Among the three countries, America shows the most industrial research collaborations. In the case of Iran, it was also concluded that the policy of encouraging the industry to participate in artificial intelligence research will be most effective. This result is also supported by experimental manipulation of values.


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