Document Type : Review Article
Department of Knowledge and Information Science. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Ahvaz. Iran.
Department of Knowledge and Information Science. The Shahid Chamran University
Associate Professor, Department of Information Science and Knowledge, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
Purpose: Today, among the organizations that are present and active in society, some of them are active in artistic fields - such as visual arts (including painting, sculpture, calligraphy, drawing, etc.), or performing arts such as Cinema and theater. Each of these organizations has specific characteristics and policies. In all these organizations, knowledge flows in an artistic context. Therefore, the first point raised in these organizations regarding knowledge is the nature of knowledge in the field of art, in other words, the relationship between knowledge and art. The main goal of this research is to discover a congruent image of art and knowledge with the hope that in a clear and acceptable way, it can finally reach a place where the components related to it are defined and presented in connection with the "nature of artistic knowledge" and to provide the ground for the definition of the "nature of artistic knowledge".
Method: The current research was conducted using “the domain review method” with the five-step process of Denyer and Turnfield. In this way, the related articles in three internal databases "The National Publications Information Bank", "SID" and "Noor Specialized Journals Database" and three international databases, namely, "Google Scholar", "Scopus" and "Web of Science" were selected and reviewed regardless of their time period coverage. After the necessary refinements in line with the goals of this research, finally 29 information sources were selected and studied. In addition, the available book sources in the subject area of artistic knowledge were also searched and used in the research process through the databases of "National Library", "The Academy of Art Library and Documentation Center of the Islamic Republic of IraN" and "The University of Art Library".
Findings: One of the ways in which knowledge could be understood is to discover the components related to that field of human knowledge. During this research, by analyzing the data obtained from information sources, 10 components were found that can be used in formulating a definition of "the nature of artistic knowledge". These components are: Discovery and intuition, knowing the principles and specialized techniques of art, perception, familiarity with society's culture, inspiration from nature, artistic experience, creativity, knowledge, aesthetic sense, cognitive function.
Results: The researchers concluded that knowledge in the field of art has its own place and characteristics which is not the same as traditional or explicit knowledge. This kind of knowledge cannot be expressed by official language, it has an individual aspect and is rooted in the experiences, culture, type of vision, ideas and inspirations that come to the mind and soul of the artist. In creating a knowledge-based system and implementing it in an organization, there is no single version for all devices, organizations and societies, and every device and society is forced to implement that Knowledge oriented system according to the conditions and requirements of the same device and society. By identifying the differences between the concept of artistic knowledge, in comparison with the current general concept of knowledge, includes different kinds of knowledge, ie,, the intangible components of arts that do not comply with the traditional concept of knowledge. Therefore, it could be asserted that artistic knowledge is somehow a kind of tacit knowledge ــ as was first introduced by Michael Polanyi. In this way, it can be concluded that in creating the artwork by revealing the unseen, the artist publicizes the inner feelings and invites the viewer to share in his search for his discovery. In this regard, it must be acknowledged that these qualities indicate that artistic knowledge is a kind of tacit knowledge, a kind of knowledge that Michael Polanyi has proposed.