Investigating factors affecting customers' behavioral intention in using virtual reality based on theories of diffusion of innovation, theory of uses and pleasures, and perceived

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate Professor, Faculyu of Management, Kharazmi University. Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Business Management, Faculty of Management, Kharazami University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Master's degree, Business Management Department, Faculty of Management, Kharazmi University




Today, due to the importance of using virtual reality technology, customers do not have time and place limitations in their shopping experience. Today, with the availability of virtual reality devices, an increasing number of retailers use this interactive 3D technology to visualize their products. Simulated experiences create real and unreal situations and lead to a positive response from customers and influence the purchase intention. In the field of accepting virtual reality, several studies have been conducted and the impact of theories such as diffusion of innovation and use and gratification on the behavioral intention of customers in using virtual reality, especially in the field of tourism, has been discussed, but in such studies, the impact of important negative factors such as perceived cost, perceived physical risk and perceived complexity are ignored. The present study aims to investigate the factors affecting the behavioral intention of customers in using virtual reality based on the theories of innovation diffusion, the theory of uses and pleasures, and the perceived value among people who shop through virtual networks.


The current research was carried out from the perspective of practical purpose and using a descriptive-survey method, and the statistical population of the current research includes people who shop through virtual networks and focuses on products that need to be checked before buying. In this study, due to the infinity of the statistical population and using the relationship between Jackson and Klein, a statistical sample of 250 has been determined. Finally, 250 people have been identified as the research sample with non-random sampling method. In this research, in order to collect information, a questionnaire tool was used, the validity of which can be confirmed and examined by professors, and Cronbach's alpha was used to measure reliability. The obtained alpha is 78%, which has been approved. In order to analyze the data using SPSS software and Amos software, the statistical methods of Kalmogorov Smirnov, sample TT and regression analysis and structural equations were used.


The results of the research confirmed the presented conceptual model and the results of the structural equations also showed that innovation diffusion, use and gratification theories, and perceived value have a positive and significant relationship with customers' behavioral intention in using virtual reality. Based on the results obtained from the conceptual model, use and gratification have the greatest positive effect on mental comfort with a value of 0.57, and among the negative relationships obtained, perceived complexity has the greatest negative effect on perceived value with a value of -0.62, and among the variables affecting behavioral intention, perceived value has had the greatest impact on behavioral intention.


The results show that the customer's perceived value has the greatest impact on the customer's intention to use virtual reality technology. In this regard, the more people feel that virtual reality technology can meet their needs, the more likely they are to choose this technology, and when the perceived value of this technology exceeds the expectations of customers and customers understand that Compared to the cost, time and effort they do, they receive more value from the real state, they will be more inclined to use this technology. Based on this result, it is suggested that the complexity of virtual reality technology is reduced and all kinds of customer costs, including Tangible and intangible as well as the physical risk of the product should be considered in the design and use of this technology to increase the perceived value of customers towards this technology. Finally, to design a reliable experience, measures such as online support to quickly answer questions are suggested, and customer problems to increase customer trust and improve their shopping experience.


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