عنوان مقاله [English]
Aim: The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of knowledge and intellectual capital management in gaining competitive advantage and its prioritization using the AHP method in Iran Insurance Company.
Methodology: The research method is descriptive-survey type. To collect data, the library method (reading documents) and field method (questionnaire) were used. The statistical population of this research was selected from 3000 Iranian insurance company employees. To determine the size of the statistical sample, Morgan's table is used, according to the size of the statistical population; the number of the statistical sample was estimated to be 341 people. The value of Cronbach's alpha for the variables of knowledge management, intellectual capital, and competitive advantage was obtained as 0.956, 0.926, and 1.250, respectively, which indicates the high reliability of the questionnaires. Hypotheses were investigated using the structural equation model and Lisrel and SPSS software. Meanwhile, all hypotheses were confirmed.
Findings: The results obtained from the analysis of statistical data at the significance level of 0.05 indicate the existence of the effect of knowledge management and intellectual capital in gaining a competitive advantage. The result of prioritization also shows that knowledge distribution with a weight of 0.246 has the most effectiveness among the dimensions of knowledge management and knowledge maintenance with a weight of 0.119 has the least effect. Also, relational capital with a weight of 0.210 has the most impact among the dimensions of intellectual capital, and organizational capital with a weight of 0.130 has the least effect.
According to the results, dimensions of intellectual capital have a direct and significant relationship with knowledge sharing, and intellectual capital has a significant relationship with knowledge sharing. In addition, intellectual capital leads to improved employee knowledge sharing. The results of the hypothesis test confirm the positive and significant relationship between intellectual capital and competitive advantage. This means that the variable of knowledge management has a positive and significant effect on gaining a competitive advantage in Iran's insurance companies.
Conclusion: Organizations with intellectual capital management generally perform better. Therefore, organizations should make more efforts to create the desire and empower their employees to share knowledge and gain competitive advantages. The development and improvement of social capital, intellectual capital, and knowledge management in the organization not only requires the improvement of communication and interactions based on trust between the members of the organization but also requires the structure and appropriate technology of each organization. Therefore, social capital can be considered as one of the capabilities of the organization and help a lot in the creation and sharing of knowledge in the intellectual capital and knowledge management of the organization.
Abker, A., Mohamed, A. & Ibrahim, S. (2019). The Effect of knowledge Management on Innovation Capabilities in the Sudanese Industrial Firms. Asian Journal of Management, 10(2), 2321-5763.
Adam, M.S. & Urquhart, C. (2009). No man is an island: Social and human capital in IT capacity building in the Maldives. Information and Organization, 19(1), 1-21.
Akbari, M., Farkhunde, M. & Ayagh, Z. (2018). Investigating the effect of competition in the product market on financial performance by moderating the quality of information disclosure: companies admitted to the Tehran Stock Exchange. Asset Management and Financing, 7(1), 29-44. DOI: 10.22108/amf.2018.108951.1236. [in persian]
Akbarzadeh, Z., Mehrmanesh, H. & Hashemzadeh Khorasgani, G. (2013). Analysis of the effect of innovation capability on entrepreneurship with the approach of sustainable competitive advantage in small and medium industries (Kaveh Industrial Town). Business Management, 6(23), 123-148. [in persian]
Aliqli, M., Bazaei, Q. & Asghari Masuleh, S. (1390). The role of knowledge management in gaining competitive advantage. Business Management, 3(9), 269-240. [in persian]
Askool, S. & Nakata, K. (2010a). A conceptual model for acceptance of social CRM systems based on a scoping study. AI and Society, 26(3), 205–220.
Balogun, O., Hawisa, H. & Tannock, J. (2004). Knowledge management for manufacturing: The product and process database. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 15(7),
575-584. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/17410380410555826.
Bennett, R. & Gabriel, H. (2007). Organizational Factors and Knowledge Management within large marketingdepartment: an empirial study. Journal of Knowledge Management, 3(3), 212-225.
Cerdan, M. (2017). Strategic Knowledge management, innovation and performance. International Journal of Information Management, 31, 502-509.
Crook, K., Kamasak, R. & Bulutlar, F. (2011). The influence of Knowledge sharing on innovation. European Business Review, 22(3), 306-317.
Danesh, F., Kazemi Alishahi, H., Rahimi, S. & Sohaili, F. (2019). The relationship between social capital and intellectual capital and knowledge management in Iranian insurance. Information Management Sciences and Techniques, 6(2), 155-122. DOI: 10.22091/stim.2020.4909.1349. [in persian]
Darabi, R., Nasiri, M. & Moulai Il-Zouleh, A. (2016). Investigating the impact of intellectual capital on knowledge management processes affected by organizational culture (case study: Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences). Health Management, 20(68), 65-74. [in persian]
Durrani, K. & Adiban, H. (2014). Investigating the relationship between knowledge management processes and the job performance of employees in higher education (a case study of Tehran University. Knowledge retrieval and semantic systems, 1(4), 1-25. [in persian]
Elda, R., Patrisia, D., Abror, A. & Linda, M. (2021). The Impact of Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management on Competitive Advantage. Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, 177, 480-487. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/aebmr.k.210616.075.
Farhadyar, A., Farhadyar, F., Dehghan Chobar, A. & Eskandrian, M. (2019). Investigating the impact of intellectual capital and entrepreneurial strategy on company performance with regard to the mediating role of competitive advantage (case study: Sahar Food Industry Company). Management and Accounting Studies, 6(4), 263-248. [in persian]
Ghafouri, A., Thabit A. & Anuri, A. (2019). Investigating the relationship between intellectual capital and financial performance based on the mediating role of knowledge sharing. New research approaches in management and accounting, 4(28), 1-14. [in persian]
Hajizadeh, P. & Sardari, A. (2017). The effect of knowledge management on improving the innovative performance of the organization with an emphasis on the mediating role of organizational learning (case study: Quaid Basir Petrochemical Production Holding). Strategic Management of Organizational Knowledge, 1(2), 63-93. [in persian]
Handayani, Y.S. & Karnawati, Y. (2020). Achieving Competitive Advantage Through Intellectual Capital. In: International Conference on Business Economics and Social Science, 4.
Hashemi, S.H., Akradi, K. & Yousefi, M. (2015). Investigating the impact of human resource management on knowledge management and organizational innovation. Knowledge retrieval and semantic systems, 2(8), 1-20. [in persian]
Huang, Y.C. & Wu, Y.C.J. (2010). Intellectual capital and knowledge productivity: the Taiwan biotech industry. Management decision, 48(4).
Ibarra-Cisneros, M.A., Hernández-Perlines, F. & Rodríguez-García, M. (2020). Intellectual capital, organisational performance and competitive advantage. European Journal of International Management, 14(6), 976-998. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/EJIM.2020.110585.
Indiyati, D. (2016). An Influence of Knowledge Management to the Intellectual Capital and the Effect to the Competitive Advantage. Sains Humanika, 8(1-2).
Jalali, M.J., Afrazeh, F. & Nezafati, N. (2017). Design and application of comprehensive knowledge management system software in the Ministry of Roads and Transport of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In: Tehran: The Fifth International Conference on Industrial Engineering. [in persian]
Kadiournia, M.M. & Miladian, H. (2016). The competitive advantage of the organization's intellectual capital. Tehran: Sokhoran. [in persian]
Kamasak, R. & Bulutlar, F. (2010). The influence of knowledge sharing on innovation. European Business Review, 22(3), 306-317.
Karasneh, A.A. (2020). Revitalizing the BSC through knowledge management: The mediating role of intellectual capital. Journal of Public Affairs, 22:e2359. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pa.2359.
Keshavarz Afshar, R., Kashwari, A. & Sohrabi, Sh. (1400). Identifying and prioritizing the factors affecting the maturity of knowledge management in Iran's government organizations. Interdisciplinary studies of strategic knowledge, 11(45), 296-271.
DOR: 20.1001.1.24234621.1400.11.45.10.1 . [in persian]
Khairandish, M., Dostkam, K. & Hosseini, Y. (2011). The role of technological factors in the success of knowledge management in the organization. Military Management, 11(44), 88-69. [in persian]
Khodadad Hosseini, S. & Lajavardi, M. (2018). Investigating the impact of information technology, knowledge management and organizational learning on organizational performance. Resource Management in Police Force, 7(1), 135-160. [in persian]
Liebowitz, J. (2001). Knowledge Management and its links to artificial intelligence. Expert Systems with Applications, 20, 1-6.
Mathews, J. & Ligori, A. (2021). Title: Cultivating Intellectual Capital for Competitive Advantage. Business Management Practices Emerging Trends, 3, 134-140.
Mazaheri, S. & Pourjafari, S. (2014). Explaining the key elements of intellectual capital and knowledge management with the aim of creating a competitive advantage in the ECR model with an emphasis on the NPD new product development process. In: Tehran: 7th National Conference and 1st International Conference on Knowledge Management. [in persian]
Mian, A. (2009). Managing knowledge in project- based organization: a cultural perspective. Acta Wasaevisa. Retrieved from: http://www.uva.fi/materiaali/pdf/isbn_978-952-476-278-6.pdf.
Nikkhah Takme Dash, Y., Hosseini, S. & Karmi, A. (2018). The effect of knowledge-based human resource management on innovation performance in small and medium-sized Iranian exporting companies. International Business Management, 2(4), 1-21. [in persian]
Nonaka, I. & Krogh, G. (2009). Tacit Knowledge and Knowledge Conversion: Controversy and Advancement in Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory. Organization Science, 20(3), 481-683. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1080.0412.
Pazuki, A. (2019). Strategic management with knowledge management approach. Tehran: Sharifzadeh publishing house. [in persian]
Quink, U. (2008). An exploration of knowledge management and intellectual capital in a nonprofit organisation context. Doctoral dissertation. Queensland University of Technology.
Rahimi, A. (2016). Investigating the effect of knowledge management on financial performance with the mediation of organizational learning. Educational Management Innovations, 12(48), 7-21. [in persian]
Rakhshani, J. & Ghaibi, B. (2014). An overview of the concept of knowledge management in the organization. In: Tehran: International Conference on Management and Economy in the 21st Century. [in persian]
Sahat, S., Mazloumi, N. & Fakhimi Mohammadpour, H. (2014). The relationship between organizational innovation and competitive advantage in insurance companies. Insurance Journal, 30(2), 1-34. [in persian]
Salili, S.S., Hamidizadeh, M., Qareche, M. & Haji Karimi, A. (2018). The functions of marketing knowledge management on empowering competitive advantages. Business Management Studies, 11(21), 425-403. [in persian]
Syahchari, D. & Sahban, M. (2019). The Impact of Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management on Competitive Advantage. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 10(8), 261-272.
Yang, J. (2010). Knowledge management opportunities for cycle time reduction. International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 1(2), 192–207.
Yonita, R., Yem, S. & Linda, M.R. (2019). Business Performance: Impact of Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management. International Journal of Economics and Management Studies, 6(12), 223-226. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14445/23939125/IJEMS-V6I12P125.
Zahedi Yazdi, M., Ramezan, M. & Hajighasemi, R. (2019). Prioritizing the Components of Intellectual Capital in Technology-based Organizations Using the FGAHP Method. International Academic Journal of Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management, 6(1), 1-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9756/IAJOBHRM/V6I1/1910001.
Zaretkar, S. & Kas Aghaei, N. (2019). The effect of organizational capability on performance with the mediating role of competitive advantage in Iran Insurance Joint Stock Company, Tehran. Human Resource Management Development and Support, 56, 154-127. [in persian]