عنوان مقاله [English]
Objective: One of the distinctive features of today's successful universities is having entrepreneurial features, and the void in this field in the country's higher education system is quite tangible. The country's universities are currently facing many problems such as lack of employment for graduates, brain drain; low skill training of students; Demotivation of students; A quantitative increase of students regardless of quality; They face a weak interaction between the industry and the university, which can be attributed to the low level of investment and lack of attention to various aspects of entrepreneurship, focus on learning theoretical knowledge instead of scientific-applied knowledge, lack of attention to creativity and ability. Learners' initiative searched. A look at the macro policies of the country also shows that the issue of entrepreneurship in educational systems has always been a concern, but in practice, we have seen universities pay little attention to this issue. Therefore, the current research was conducted with the aim of identifying the elements of educational entrepreneurship model in universities and higher education institutions of Iran and presenting a conceptual model.
Method: The research is applied in terms of purpose, qualitative in terms of data, based on systematic grounded theory, and in terms of exploratory implementation based on inductive approach. The statistical population consisted of educational entrepreneurs, educational entrepreneurship policy makers and entrepreneurship professors from 7 top universities in the country. In order to select the sample, a purposeful conscious approach was used and sampling was done by snowball method. The interview was conducted for 30 to 60 minutes according to the guidelines. Sampling was done until theoretical saturation and finally 15 people were interviewed. To collect data, library method (scanning) and field method (interview) were used. In order to determine the validity of the findings, three methods of pluralism were used, including the retesting of the method of doing the work, the reliability test between the coders and the use of new interviewees to test the reliability of the model. Finally, for data analysis, theoretical coding technique was used during three stages of open, central and selective coding.
Findings: Finally, the obtained results showed that the model of educational entrepreneurship in universities and higher education institutions of Iran has 108 sub-categories (concepts) and 17 main categories, which is the central category of the model; Educational entrepreneurship in Iranian universities; The underlying factors include education, faculty members, and culture building; Causal factors include individual characteristics, government support and economic structure; Intervening factors include the higher education system and the use of new technologies; The strategies included redefining the field of education in the university, commercialization of education, entrepreneurial leadership and counseling, and student education policies, and finally, the results included the growth and development of the country, the realization of the goals of the higher education system, social welfare, and social dynamics.
Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that for educational entrepreneurship in universities; You should have a broad view of the subject and consider the whole model obtained. It cannot be expected that entrepreneurship among students will increase, but not all the aspects obtained were studied. Some of the factors that make up the appropriate model of educational entrepreneurship in universities are the basis for the occurrence of educational entrepreneurship, some are the cause of it, and in between there are some factors that hinder it. Attention to various factors and the implementation of strategies, consequences and positive results of educational entrepreneurship.